Energy poverty is a multi-dimensional concept that is not easily captured by a single indicator

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During its duration, the EU Energy Poverty Observatory (EPOV) project selected a set of consensual and expenditure-based indicators to measure energy poverty, which should be viewed and used in combination.

Four different primary indicators for energy poverty are identified, of which two are based on self-reported experiences of limited access to energy services (based on EUSILC data) and the other two are calculated using household income and/or energy expenditure data (based on HBS data).

Additionally, a set of 19 secondary indicators are extracted from different data sources, mainly the Eurostat (ESTAT) website, SILC and the Building Stock Observatory (BSO).

Each indicator captures a different aspect of the phenomenon. These indicators should be seen as a means to provide a snapshot of energy poverty issues, which can then be explored in more detail in research and projects on the ground.

The EPOV Methodology Guidebook, published in 2020, presents the calculation, interpretation and detailed database of all indicators.

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